Glossary of Fleet Terms

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3G Sunset

The 3G sunset in fleet management and telematics refers to the discontinuation of third-generation cellular networks, necessitating the upgrade of vehicle trackers and data communication systems to newer technologies such as 4G LTE or 5G for uninterrupted connectivity and real-time monitoring.

4G LTE Network

The 4G LTE network (or LTE) is a high-speed, fourth-generation Long-Term Evolution cellular network that provides faster data transmission and enhanced connectivity for fleet telematics, enabling real-time tracking, efficient data transfer, and improved communication.

5G Network

The 5G network is the fifth-generation cellular network technology, offering ultra-fast data speeds, low latency, and high reliability. It offers greater data throughput than LTE and supports advanced telematics applications, real-time analytics, and enhanced vehicle-to-vehicle communication.



An accelerometer in telematics measures a vehicle’s acceleration, deceleration, and lateral movement. It plays a critical role in detecting harsh driving events, contributing to safer and more efficient fleet operations.

Active Tracking

Active tracking is a real-time fleet monitoring method that provides live updates at regular intervals on vehicle locations, speeds, and activities. It allows fleet managers to make informed decisions, enhance route optimization, and ensure security.

Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS)

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are technologies that assist drivers in the safe operation of a vehicle. They use sensors, cameras, and software to monitor the vehicle’s surroundings and provide the driver with information or intervene to prevent collisions. Advanced dash cams equipped with ADAS continuously monitors the road for events such as following too closely, forward collision, lane departure, pedestrian alert, and rolling stop sign.

Aggressive Driving

Aggressive driving in fleet management refers to unsafe and high-risk driving behaviors, such as rapid acceleration, harsh braking, and speeding. Monitoring and addressing aggressive driving can improve safety and fuel efficiency.

Alternative Fuels

Alternative fuels in fleet management include non-traditional energy sources like electricity, natural gas, and hydrogen, used to power vehicles. They promote sustainability and reduce emissions.

Application Programming Interface (API)

An API is a set of rules and protocols that allows different software systems to communicate and share data. In telematics, APIs enable seamless integration between fleet management software and third-party applications or devices.

Asset Tracking

Asset tracking involves monitoring the location and status of fleet assets, such as vehicles, equipment, or cargo, using GPS and telematics technology. It enhances security, productivity, and inventory management.

Asset Utilization

Asset utilization in fleet management measures how efficiently fleet assets are used. Optimizing asset utilization reduces costs and maximizes productivity.

Automatic Onboard Recording Device (AOBRD)

An Automatic Onboard Recording Device (AOBRD) is an electronic or mechanical device that records a driver’s duty status information. AOBRDs are an older style of electronic logging device (ELD) that connected to a vehicle’s engine to record hours-of-service (HOS), engine hours, miles, drive times, and more. The FMCSA’s ELD mandate of 2017 required that all commercial vehicles be equipped an ELD or AOBRD. As of 2019, AOBRDs ceased to be compliant with FMCSA standards, requiring vehicles to transition to ELDs.

Autonomous Vehicles

Autonomous vehicles, often referred to as self-driving vehicles, use advanced sensors and technology to operate without human intervention. They are on the cutting edge of fleet automation.


Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

A BEV is an electric vehicle powered solely by rechargeable batteries, producing zero tailpipe emissions. BEVs are gaining popularity in fleet electrification efforts.

Battery Voltage

Battery voltage is the electrical potential difference in a vehicle’s battery. Monitoring system events, including vehicle battery voltage, is essential for maintaining the health of electric vehicles, optimizing power consumption, and ensuring safe operation.

Business Intelligence and Data Analytics

Business intelligence (BI) and data analytics involve analyzing telematics data to derive actionable insights, helping fleet managers make informed decisions, improve efficiency, and reduce costs.


California BAR’s Continuous Testing Program

The California Bureau of Automotive Repair (BAR) developed the Continuous Testing Program (CTP) to help government agencies more easily track emissions from their fleet vehicles. The CTP pilot program lets approved government fleet vehicles use telematics technology to achieve smog certification without the need for manual inspections. The program captures diagnostic trouble codes (DTC), smog-specific sensor information, vehicle movement, driver behavior, engine idle times, and more.

Carb HD I/M (Clean Truck Check)

The California Air Resources Board (CARB)’s Heavy-Duty Inspection and Maintenance (HD I/M) program, also known as Clean Truck Check, is an emissions-reduction program for heavy-duty, diesel vehicles. The program’s goal is to reduce smog-forming and toxic pollutants by ensuring that heavy-duty vehicle emissions control systems operate properly throughout the life of the vehicle. The program combines periodic vehicle testing requirements with other emissions monitoring techniques and enforcement strategies to identify vehicles that require emissions-related repairs.

Collision Reconstruction

Collision reconstruction in fleet management is the process of analyzing data from telematics systems, such as video footage, vehicle speed, and GPS coordinates, to reconstruct and understand the circumstances of a collision.

Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)

The Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) is a non-profit organization comprised of law enforcement agencies and industry stakeholders. CVSA works to enhance the safety of commercial vehicles and their operators through initiatives, inspections, and educational programs, which are closely tied to fleet management and telematics compliance.

Compliance Safety Accountability (CSA)

Compliance Safety Accountability (CSA) is a program initiated by the FMCSA to assess and improve the safety performance of commercial motor carriers. It utilizes data from inspections, crash reports, and other sources to identify and address safety violations and risks within the industry.

Connected Vehicles

Connected vehicles are vehicles equipped with internet connectivity and telematics technology, enabling data exchange between vehicles and fleet management systems for real-time monitoring and control.

Controller Area Network Bus (CAN Bus)

The CAN bus is a communication network within a vehicle that allows various components and sensors to transmit data. It is one of the protocols used for collecting on-board vehicle diagnostics and performance information in telematics.

Cost of Ignoring (COI)

The COI in fleet management refers to the financial and operational consequences of neglecting issues like maintenance, safety, or compliance. Calculating the COI helps prioritize corrective actions.

CSA Score

A CSA Score, also known as a Safety Measurement System (SMS) score, is a numerical rating used to evaluate the safety and compliance of commercial motor carriers. It is based on various factors, including inspection results and violations. Fleet managers use CSA scores as a metric to assess and improve their safety performance.


Cybersecurity involves protecting telematics systems and fleet data from unauthorized access, cyberattacks, and data breaches, ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of information.


Dash Cam

A dash cam, short for dashboard camera, is a video recording device mounted on a vehicle’s dashboard or windshield. Road-facing cameras record footage of the road while driver-facing cameras capture driver behaviors, which can provide valuable evidence in accidents or disputes.  Paired with AI, dash cams can identify undesirable driver behavior and warn drivers of impending dangers.

Data Normalization

Data normalization is the process of organizing and standardizing collected data to make it consistent and usable for analysis. It enhances the accuracy and reliability of telematics insights.

Data Privacy

Regulations vary by jurisdiction, but a number of data privacy laws and regulations apply to the telematics industry, including General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA),  Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA), Commercial Driver’s License (CDL) Privacy Rule, and SOC2.

Data Visualization

Data visualization in fleet management involves presenting telematics data in graphical formats, such as charts or maps, to make complex information more understandable and actionable.

Department of Transportation (DOT)

The Department of Transportation (DOT) is a federal agency responsible for overseeing various aspects of transportation in the United States. In the context of fleet management and telematics, the DOT sets regulations and standards that impact commercial vehicles and safety compliance.

Digital Transformation

Digital transformation in fleet management involves adopting digital technologies, including telematics, to streamline operations, enhance efficiency, and remain competitive in the modern business landscape.

Distracted Driving

DOT inspections are routine examinations of commercial vehicles and drivers to ensure compliance with safety regulations. These inspections can be conducted at weigh stations or during traffic stops. DOT inspections include six levels, from Level I (the most comprehensive) down to Level VI, with Level I inspections covering both vehicle and driver inspections.

DOT Inspections

DOT inspections are routine examinations of commercial vehicles and drivers to ensure compliance with safety regulations. These inspections can be conducted at weigh stations or during traffic stops. DOT inspections include six levels, from Level I (the most comprehensive) down to Level VI, with Level I inspections covering both vehicle and driver inspections.

Driver Feedback

Driver feedback systems provide real-time audio and/or visual alerts to drivers about their behavior, helping improve driving habits, safety, and fuel efficiency.

Driver Monitoring System (DMS)

A driver monitoring system (DMS) is a vehicle safety system that monitors the driver’s alertness, attentiveness, and behaviors. It uses sensors, such as cameras and infrared detectors, to track the driver’s head, eyes, and face. Advanced dash cams equipped with DMS can detect signs of drowsiness, distracted driving, seat belt use, smoking, and more.

Driver Vehicle Inspection Report (DVIR)

A Driver Vehicle Inspection Report (DVIR) is a formal record filled out by a driver to document the condition of a commercial vehicle before and after a trip. A key component of fleet safety and maintenance, DVIRs are essential for compliance with regulations and promoting road safety, and mandated by regulatory agencies like the Department of Transportation (DOT) in the United States to promote safe and well-maintained vehicles in commercial fleets.


Our automated driver self-coaching app, DriveShield empowers drivers to monitor their driving habits and improve their performance through an easy-to-use scorecard system. Drivers take control of their scorecard by reviewing events and either self-coaching or disputing inaccuracies, reserving supervisor intervention only for serious patterns of bad driving behavior.

Drowsy Driving

Drowsy driving occurs when a driver operates a vehicle while fatigued or drowsy. Traditional telematics solutions rely on hours of service to identify potential fatigue issues, FleetCam Pro performs true fatigue detection by using eye-tracking technologies to monitor driver eye movements and gaze patterns, as well as  identifying and factoring in head tilts.

Duty of Care

Duty of care in fleet management refers to the legal and ethical responsibility of fleet operators to ensure the safety and well-being of their drivers while on the job and members of the public..


Electric Vehicle Service Provider (EVSP)

EVSPs offer services related to electric vehicle charging, including billing, network management, and maintenance, supporting fleet electrification efforts.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

EVSE includes charging stations, hardware, software, and any infrastructure necessary for charging electric vehicles. Fleet electrification relies on robust EVSE networks.

Electric Vehicles (EV)

Electric Vehicles (EVs) are automobiles powered by electricity stored in batteries or fuel cells, contributing to reduced emissions and fuel costs in fleet operations.

Electronic Logging Device (ELD)

An ELD is a telematics device that automatically records a driver’s hours of service (HOS) for compliance with regulations and enhances driver safety. To ensure full compliance, organizations should only use FMCSA-approved devices.

Engine Diagnostics

Engine diagnostics in telematics involve monitoring and analyzing a vehicle’s engine performance, identifying issues, and scheduling maintenance to optimize reliability and efficiency.

Engine Hours

Engine hours represent the cumulative time a vehicle’s engine has been in operation. Tracking engine hours is essential for maintenance scheduling and cost control.


Expandability in telematics systems refers to their capacity to accommodate additional features, devices, or capabilities as fleet management needs evolve.


Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Transportation focused on ensuring the safety of commercial motor vehicles and drivers. It regulates commercial driver’s licenses, hours of service, and other safety-related aspects relevant to fleet management and telematics.

Field Warrior

Our mobile workforce management app, Field Warrior works in conjunction with IntelliHub to bring turn-by-turn commercial navigation, electronic logbooks, digital DVIRs, signature capture, proof-of-delivery, driver messaging, and more to Android and iOS devices

Fleet Compliance

Fleet compliance involves adhering to legal and regulatory requirements established by the FMCSA and U.S. DOT related to vehicle operations, safety, and environmental standards, minimizing legal risks for fleet operators.

Fleet Electrification

Fleet electrification is the transition of a fleet from conventional fossil-fuel vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrids, reducing emissions and promoting environmental sustainability.

Fleet Integration

Fleet integration involves connecting and integrating various telematics systems, software platforms, and devices (such as vehicle trackers and dash cams) to streamline fleet operations, data flow, and decision-making.

Fleet Management Report

Fleet management reports provide insights into the performance, utilization, and costs of a fleet of vehicles or equipment. With customizable fleet, driver, and vehicle reports, Fleet managers can track critical metrics such as fuel consumption, maintenance costs, vehicle utilization, driver behavior, and regulatory compliance to identify areas where they can improve efficiency, reduce costs, and ensure compliance with regulations.

Fleet Optimization

Fleet optimization utilizes telematics data to maximize efficiency, reduce costs, and improve overall fleet performance through better route planning, vehicle tracking, maintenance scheduling, and resource allocation.


FleetCam is a complete video telematics solution, integrating real-time GPS tracking to monitor your fleet vehicles’ true movements, AI-driven sensors to detect unsafe driving behaviors and provide advanced driver assistance, real-time in-cab notifications, and an integrated driver behavior coaching system. Live-stream or access historical footage from up to eight cameras for a true 360-degree view of your vehicle.

Fuel Usage

Fuel usage tracking in telematics measures the consumption of fuel by vehicles, allowing fleet managers to monitor fuel performance, identify fuel-wasting behaviors, and reduce costs.



G-force, or gravitational force, is measured in acceleration units (g) and indicates the force experienced by a vehicle or its occupants during acceleration, deceleration, or turning. G-force data is used to detect harsh driving events and is crucial for safety and risk assessment.


Gamification in fleet management involves using game-like elements, such as rewards and competitions, to motivate drivers to improve performance in areas such as safety and fuel efficiency.


Geofencing is a virtual boundary or geographical area defined using GPS technology. It is used in fleet management to set geographic perimeters that trigger alerts if a vehicle or asset crosses a preset boundary.

Global Alliance for Vehicle Data Access (GAVDA)

GAVDA is an organization that advocates for open access to vehicle data, supporting the development of telematics solutions and fostering innovation in the automotive industry.

Global Positioning System (GPS)

GPS is a satellite-based navigation system used in fleet telematics to determine precise vehicle locations, enabling accurate tracking and route optimization.

GPS Fleet Tracking

GPS fleet tracking involves using GPS technology to monitor and manage vehicle fleets, providing real-time location data, route analysis, and performance insights.

Green Fleet

A green fleet consists of environmentally friendly vehicles, including electric, hybrid, and alternative-fuel vehicles, designed to reduce carbon emissions and environmental impact.


Hours of Service (HOS)

Hours of Service regulations govern the maximum amount of time commercial vehicle drivers can spend on duty and/or driving. Telematics and ELDs help ensure compliance with HOS rules.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

HEVs combine an internal combustion engine with an electric propulsion system, offering improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions in fleet applications.


In-Vehicle Coaching

In-vehicle coaching systems use telematics and other sensors to monitor driver behavior and provide real-time feedback, helping them improve their behavior on the road, leading to safer driving and reduced operational costs.


IntelliHub is a browser-based, real-time fleet management software. This advanced fleet management software works with industry-leading telematics and video-telematics devices to bring real-time vehicle cameras, location tracking, vehicle dispatching, activity alerts, fleet reports, hours of service, and more into a single, easy-to-use interface.

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)

An ICE is a traditional engine that burns fossil fuels, like gasoline or diesel, to generate power in non-electric vehicles.

International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA)

IFTA is an agreement among U.S. states and Canadian provinces that simplifies the reporting and payment of fuel taxes for interstate and international motor carriers, often facilitated by telematics systems.

Internet of Things (IoT)

In fleet management, IoT refers to the network of interconnected devices, sensors, and vehicles that exchange data to enhance operational efficiency and decision-making. These advanced IoT devices provide an extra layer of insight into the use of your assets and equipment, such as tracking temperature, doors, compressor activity, lights, sirens, and other power take-off (PTO) events.



J1939 is a standardized communication protocol used in heavy-duty vehicles for transmitting data between components, supporting diagnostics, and can be used for telematics integration.


Kilowatt-hours per Mile (kWh per Mile)

kWh per mile is a measure of the energy consumption of an electric vehicle, indicating the number of kilowatt-hours needed to travel one mile. It’s crucial for assessing electric vehicle efficiency.


Level 1 Charging

Level 1 charging is the slowest electric vehicle charging option, typically using a standard 120V household outlet. Also known as trickle charging, it is suitable for overnight charging but is less efficient than higher-level options.

Level 2 Charging

Level 2 charging provides faster EV charging using 240V residential outlets and 208V commercial outlets. It is commonly used in fleet charging stations, offering quicker and more efficient recharging.

Level 3 Charging (DC Fast Charging)

Level 3 charging, also known as DC Fast Charging, provides rapid electric vehicle charging at public charging stations, making it ideal for quick top-ups during the day. DC Fast Charging stations require a 480V electrical source.


Machine Learning

Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence that uses algorithms and statistical models to analyze large data sets, identify patterns, and make logical predictions. In fleet management, machine learning helps fleet managers make more intelligent decisions and improve operational processes.

Management by Measurement

Management by measurement is an approach in fleet management that emphasizes data-driven decision-making and continuous performance evaluation to achieve operational excellence.

Maximum Range

Maximum range in electric vehicles indicates the distance a vehicle can travel on a single charge, influencing route planning and operational efficiency.

Miles per Gallon of Gasoline-Equivalent (MPGe)

MPGe is a measure used to compare the energy efficiency of electric vehicles to traditional gasoline-powered vehicles, helping fleet managers assess fuel savings.


National Motor Freight Traffic Association (NMFTA)

NMFTA is an organization that develops and maintains standards for classifying and rating freight in the transportation industry, affecting pricing and logistics in fleet operations.

Near-Field Communication (NFC)

NFC is a technology that allows short-range wireless communication between devices. In fleet management, NFC can be used for driver authentication, vehicle access, and data transfer.

Nearest Vehicle

Nearest vehicle tracking identifies the closest available vehicle to a specific location or task, enabling efficient dispatching and reducing response times.

Nevada’s Continuous Monitoring Program

Nevada’s Continuous Monitoring program is a voluntary program that monitors fleet vehicle emissions electronically. The program let’s business and government fleets registered in Nevada send emissions data from the vehicles Onboard Diagnostic (OBD) port to the Nevada DMV instead of using conventional emissions checks. The program captures diagnostic trouble codes (DTC), smog-specific sensor information, vehicle movement, driver behavior, engine idle times, and more.



On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD II) is a standardized gateway into a vehicle’s computer that monitors engine performance and reports issues. Telematics devices often utilize OBD II data for diagnostics and maintenance.


An odometer is a device that measures the total distance a vehicle has traveled. It is essential for tracking vehicle usage, maintenance scheduling, and mileage-based reporting.

OEM Embedded Telematics

OEM embedded telematics systems are factory-installed telematics solutions provided by vehicle manufacturers, offering built-in connectivity and features without additional third-party hardware.


OmniPass is a device that provides automated, real-time validation of passengers for buses. The multi-modal passenger scanner uses RFID, QR codes, NFC, or keypad codes to monitor and count passengers boarding and disembarking buses, trains, and other methods of transportation. With accurate, real-time data tracking passenger counts, transportation companies can optimize their fleets to improve passenger comfort and increase revenues.

On-Board Charger

An on-board charger in electric vehicles converts AC electricity from charging stations to DC power for the vehicle’s battery, managing the charging process efficiently.

Open Platform

An open platform in telematics allows for unfiltered access to the data generated by the vehicle.  

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)

OEMs are companies that manufacture vehicles or components for vehicles. OEM telematics systems are integrated into vehicles by the manufacturer.

Over the Air (OTA)

OTA updates in telematics involve remotely delivering software updates, patches, and firmware upgrades to connected vehicles and devices, ensuring optimal performance and security.


Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

PHEVs combine an internal combustion engine with an electric motor and a rechargeable battery, allowing for electric-only driving and improved fuel efficiency.

Preventive Maintenance

Preventive maintenance in fleet management involves scheduled inspections and repairs to prevent equipment breakdowns and optimize vehicle reliability.


Productivity in fleet management measures the efficiency of operations, considering factors like vehicle utilization, driver performance, and job completion rates.


Records of Duty Status (RODS)

A record of duty status (RODS) is a driver’s log that tracks the number of hours a driver spends on the road. RODS are required by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Hours of Service regulations, which are designed to prevent driver fatigue and promote road safety.  Since the ELD mandate, commercial carriers are transitioning to electronic logging devices.

Remote Diagnostics

Remote diagnostics in telematics involve the ability to monitor vehicle health and performance in real-time, allowing for proactive maintenance and reducing downtime.

Route Matrix

Route Matrix is a fleet routing software that builds cost-effective routes by automatically optimizing your stops into an efficient order. It can be custom sorted for time, distance, service, and other factors with a simple, intuitive interface that saves time and improves fuel efficiency.



Scalability in telematics solutions refers to a fleet management system’s ability to adapt and expand as a fleet grows, accommodating additional vehicles, data, and users.


A driver scorecard in fleet management is a performance evaluation tool that quantifies driver performance based on predefined metrics, helping identify areas for improvement. A scorecard highlights drivers strengths and weaknesses on the same analytics chart that their supervisor views, helping drivers understand their performance and how they can improve.

Seat Belt Usage

Seat belt usage monitoring involves tracking whether drivers and passengers are wearing seat belts, promoting safety and compliance with state and federal regulations.


SOC 2 is a set of cybersecurity standards that define the security standards, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality, and privacy of customer data. In fleet management, it ensures telematics systems adhere to strict security practices.

Software Development Kit (SDK)

An SDK provides tools and resources for developers to create custom applications and integrations with telematics systems and platforms.

State of Charge (SOC)

SOC indicates the remaining energy level in an electric vehicle’s battery, helping drivers and fleet managers plan charging stops effectively.


Sustainability in fleet management involves reducing environmental impact through measures like vehicle electrification, efficient routing, and alternative fuels.



A tachograph is a device that records a vehicle’s speed and distance traveled. Tachographs are used for compliance with hours of service regulations in the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK).


Telematics is the integration of telecommunications and informatics technologies in vehicles for data collection, analysis, and transmission to improve fleet management and vehicle performance.

Third-Party Device Integration

Third-party device integration involves incorporating external hardware and sensors into telematics systems to expand functionality and data collection capabilities.


Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ)

A ULEZ is an area within London, England where an emissions-standard fine is applied to non-compliant vehicles. The program incentivizes the use of electric and hybrid vehicles in fleet operations.

Urban Analytics

Urban analytics uses telematics data to analyze and optimize vehicle and traffic patterns in urban environments, improving transportation efficiency and reducing congestion.


Vehicle Dwell

Vehicle dwell time refers to the amount of time a vehicle spends stationary at a scheduled stop, which impacts route planning and resource allocation. This is a key metric for public transportation systems.

Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)

A VIN is a unique alphanumeric code assigned to each vehicle, containing information about its manufacturer, model, and other characteristics, aiding in identifying a specific vehicle, vehicle tracking, and management.



Zero-emissions vehicles produce no tailpipe emissions, typically referring to electric vehicles or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, which contribute to reducing environmental impact.


Zones in telematics are geographical areas defined for specific purposes, such as geofencing, tracking, or regulatory compliance, enhancing operational control and reporting accuracy.

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